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Complaints seem vague or exaggerated arthritis diet foods to eat purchase 250 mg naprosyn visa, and the person frequently receives medical care from a number of physicians arthritis in dogs and walking 500mg naprosyn visa, sometimes at the same time arthritis knee levels naprosyn 250mg overnight delivery. Seldom does a year pass without some physical complaint that prompts a trip to the doctor rheumatoid arthritis in feet symptoms discount naprosyn 250mg mastercard, or generally, to many doctors. A study that tracked medical-care utilization of somatizing patients found them to be heavy users of medical services (Barsky, Orav, & Bates, 2005). The essential feature of hypochondriasis is fear of disease, of what bodily symptoms may portend. Persons with somatization disorder, by contrast, are pestered by the symptoms themselves. Both diagnoses may be given to the same individual if the diagnostic criteria for both disorders are met. The disorder is also four times more likely to occur among African Americans than other ethnic or racial groups (Swartz et al. Many patients, especially female patients, are misdiagnosed with psychological disorders, including somatization disorder, because modern medicine fails to identify the underlying medical basis of their physical complaints (Klonoff & Landrine, 1997). Somatization disorder usually begins in adolescence or young adulthood and appears to be a chronic or even lifelong disorder. Although not much is known about the childhood backgrounds of people with somatization disorder, a recent study characterized the family environments in which many somatization disorder patients were raised as emotionally cold, distant, and unsupportive and wracked by a pattern of chronic emotional and physical abuse (Brown, Schrag, & Trimble, 2005). In the United States, it is common for people who develop hypochondriasis to be troubled by the idea that they have serious illnesses, such as cancer. The koro and dhat syndromes of the Far East share some clinical features with hypochondriasis. Although these syndromes may seem foreign to North American readers, each is connected with the folklore of its own culture. Koro syndrome is a culture-bound syndrome found primarily in China and some other Far Eastern countries (Sheung-Tak, 1996). People with koro syndrome fear that their genitals are shrinking and retracting into their body, which they believe will result in death (Fabian, 1991; Goetz & Price, 1994; Tseng et al. Koro is considered a culture-bound syndrome, although some cases have been reported outside China and the Far East. The syndrome has been identified mainly in young men, although some cases have also been reported in women (Tseng et al. Physiological signs of anxiety that approach panic are common, including profuse sweating, breathlessness, and heart palpitations. Men who suffer from koro have been known to use mechanical devices, such as chopsticks, to try to prevent the penis from retracting into the body (Devan, 1987). Epidemics involving hundreds or thousands of people have been reported in China, Singapore, Thailand, and India (Tseng et al. In Guangdong Province in China, an epidemic of koro involving more than 2,000 persons occurred during the 1980s (Tseng et al. Guangdong residents who developed koro tended to be more superstitious, lower in intelligence, and more accepting of koro-related folk beliefs (such as the belief that shrinkage of the penis will be lethal) than those who did not fall victim to the epidemic (Tseng et al. Medical reassurance that such fears are unfounded often quells koro episodes (Devan, 1987). Koro episodes among those who do not receive corrective information tend to pass with time but may recur. Dhat syndrome, found among young Asian Indian males, involves excessive fears over the loss of seminal fluid during nocturnal emissions (Akhtar, 1988). Some men with this syndrome also believe (incorrectly) that semen mixes with urine and is excreted through urination. Men with dhat syndrome may roam from physician to physician seeking help to prevent nocturnal emissions or the (imagined) loss of semen mixed with excreted urine. There is a widespread belief within Indian culture (and other Near and Far Eastern cultures) that the loss of semen is harmful because it depletes the body of physical and mental energy (Chadda & Ahuja, 1990).
A man may have fantasies of exposing himself or fondling a child treatment for arthritis in the knee at home discount naprosyn 500mg online, but if he is always able to restrain himself from acting out those fantasies arthritis in fingers mayo clinic purchase naprosyn online, he is not a danger to anyone; nevertheless arthritis in neck numb fingers buy naprosyn 250 mg free shipping, if his fantasies and urges cause him distress or impair his ability to function rheumatoid arthritis xanax 500 mg naprosyn amex, he would be diagnosed with pedophilia. Gender and Sexual Disorders 4 9 1 Understanding Paraphilias Researchers are only just beginning to learn why paraphilias emerge and persist, and not enough is known to understand how feedback loops might arise among neurological, psychological, and social factors. In fact, researchers found that people with pedophilia have very specific cognitive deficits when performing tasks that rely on this neural system (Tost et al. For example, these patients were strikingly impaired in inhibiting responses and in working memory-both of which rely heavily on the frontal lobes (Smith & Kosslyn, 2006). In addition, evidence suggests that the neurotransmitters that are used in this neural system, such as dopamine and serotonin, do not function properly in people who have paraphilias (Kafka, 2003). In addition, researchers have found that paraphilias have a slight tendency to run in families; moreover, pedophilia occurs more frequently in families in which a member has pedophilia than in families in which members have another sort of paraphilia (Gaffney, Lurie, & Berlin, 1984). If such findings are replicated, they would suggest that distinct sets of genes contribute to pedophilia. Psychological Factors: Conditioned Arousal Both psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral theories have been invoked to explain paraphilias, but research to date does not generally support either type of explanation (Osborne & Wise, 2005). Behavioral theory, though, can answer one intriguing question about paraphilias: Why are almost all people with paraphilias male One contributing factor may simply stem from male physiology: the position of the penis and testicles on the body can easily lead to their being inadvertently stimulated (Munroe & Gauvain, 2001); this is important because such stimulation can result in classical conditioning. Moreover, the pleasurable consequence of arousal and possible orgasm provides positive reinforcement (Laws & Marshall, 1991). And, as discussed in Chapter 2, classical conditioning alters neural communication so that neurons that store particular associations come to fire together more easily. In fact, humans-or at least human males-may be biologically prepared to develop classically conditioned sexual arousal to some situations or objects (Osborne & Wise, 2005), which would explain why a pillow fetish is not a common fetish. A sexual Zeigarnik effect is more likely to occur in males because of the nature of male anatomy, thus accounting for the predominance of men among those with paraphilias (Munroe & Gauvain, 2001). N P S the Zeigarnik effect can also help explain why traditional, nonindustrialized societies have lower prevalence of paraphilias than do Western societies: Western societies provide many erotic stimuli-in magazines, in movies, and on billboards and television-to which males can become aroused. In turn, males, particularly boys, are thus more likely to be "interrupted," leading to a desire to complete the task (Munroe & Gauvain, 2001). One hypothesis for the almost exclusive prevalence of these disorders among males pertains to how the male anatomy promotes more frequent and easier accidental sexual arousal, along with the consequences of being interrupted while aroused (the Zeigarnik effect). Treating Paraphilias Only some people who have paraphilias receive treatment-typically those who engaged in predatory paraphilic behavior with nonconsenting individuals and so were brought into the criminal justice system (where they are classified as sex offenders). The goal of treatment, which may be ordered by a judge, is to decrease paraphilic impulses and behaviors by targeting neurological, psychological, and social factors; research on treatments for paraphilic disorders is not yet advanced enough to indicate how feedback loops arise as a result of treatment. Medications include antiandrogen drugs such as medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) and cyprotereone acetate (Androcur), which decrease testosterone levels. In turn, decreased testosterone levels lead to decreased sexual urges, fantasies, and behaviors in sexual offenders (Bradford, 2000; Gijs & Gooren, 1996; Robinson & Valcour, 1995). Moreover, within a few weeks of stopping the medication, the men again experience the urges and may engage in the predatory behaviors (Bradford, 2000; Gijs & Gooren, 1996). Thus, a treatment that targets neurological factors can affect thoughts (fantasies), which are psychological factors. Most men who receive treatment for a paraphilia do so after coming to the attention of the criminal justice system, as did this man. For example, such distortions might include the belief that sexual actions directed toward nonconsenting individuals are not harmful. Behavioral Gender and Sexual Disorders 4 9 3 methods, such as extinction, are designed to decrease sexual arousal to paraphilic stimuli while increasing arousal to normal stimuli (Akins, 2004). Both types of interventions, when effective, ultimately change arousal patterns, sexual fantasies and urges, and sexual behaviors toward nonconsenting individuals. In addition, treatment may sometimes include relapse prevention training, which teaches men to identify and recognize high-risk situations and learn strategies to avoid them. Such training also involves learning new coping skills, such as anger management or assertiveness (Pithers, 1990). However, such treatments tend not to reduce subsequent offenses among those sex offenders who are also psychopaths- people who lack empathy, show little remorse or guilt about hurting others, and shirk responsibility for their actions (Barbaree, 2005; Langton et al.
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Do home safety check (stair gates rheumatoid arthritis thyroid buy naprosyn toronto, barriers around space heaters rheumatoid arthritis cream order naprosyn 500mg online, cleaning products) arthritis relief for wrists generic 250 mg naprosyn otc. Do parents and infant demonstrate reciprocal engagement during play arthritis knee nerve pain buy naprosyn 250mg free shipping, feeding, eating Is infant free to move away from parent to explore and check back with the parent visually and physically Complete Physical Examination, including Measure and plot: Recumbent length, weight, head circumference, and weight-for-length Assess/observe for: Positional skull deformities; ocular motility, pupil opacification, red reflexes, visual acuity; heart murmurs; femoral pulses; developmental hip dysplasia; neurologic tone/ strength/movement, symmetry Elicit: Parachute reflex screening ( Has your partner ever hit, kicked, or shoved you, or physically hurt you or the baby Use consistent, positive discipline (limit use of the word no, use distraction, be a role model). Nutrition and feeding: Self-feeding, mealtime routines, transition to solid foods (table food introduction), cup drinking, plans for weaning Gradually increase table foods; ensure variety of foods, textures. Remove firearms from home; if firearm necessary, store unloaded and locked, with ammunition locked separately. Have you considered not owning a firearm because of the danger to your child and other family members Do home safety check (stair gates, barriers around space heaters, cleaning products, electric cords). Continue 1 nap a day; follow nightly bedtime routine with quiet time, reading, singing, favorite toy. Feeding and appetite changes: Self-feeding, continued breastfeeding and transition to family meals, nutritious foods Encourage self-feeding; avoid small, hard foods. Establishing a dental home: First dental checkup and dental hygiene Use rear-facing car safety seat until child is highest weight or height allowed by manufacturer; make necessary changes when switching seat to forward facing; never place vehicle safety seat in front seat of car with passenger air bag; backseat safest. Use hat/sun protection clothing, sunscreen; avoid prolonged exposure when sun is strongest, between 11:00 am and 3:00 pm. Keep child away from pet feeding area; monitor interactions between child and pet. Remove/lock up poisons/toxic household products; keep Poison Help number (800-2221222) at each telephone, including cell. Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety reflect new cognitive gains; speak reassuringly. Maintain consistent bedtime and nighttime routine; tuck in when drowsy but still awake. If night waking occurs, reassure briefly; give stuffed animal or blanket for self-consolation. Remove poisons/toxic household products; keep Poison Help number (800-222-1222) at every phone, including cell; use stair gates; keep furniture away from windows; install window guards. Brush teeth twice a day with small smear of fluoridated toothpaste, soft toothbrush. Prevent tooth decay by good family oral health habits (brushing, flossing), not sharing utensils or cup. Spend time with child each day; plan ahead for difficult situations, and try new things to make them easier. Wait until child is ready for toilet training (dry for periods of about 2 hours, knows wet and dry, can pull pants up/down, can indicate bowel movement). Prepare toddler for new sibling by reading books; avoid new developmental demands on toddler; take action to ensure own health. If you choose to introduce media now, choose high-quality programs/apps and use them together; limit viewing to less than 1 hour per day; be aware of own media use habits; discuss family media use plan ( Provide 1 bigger meal, multiple small meals/snacks; trust child to decide how much to eat. Remove/lock up poisons/toxic household products; keep Poison Help number (800-222-1222) at each telephone, including cell.
Distinguishing Between Dependent Personality Disorder and Other Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Distinguishing Between Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder and Other Disorders Understanding Odd/Eccentric Personality Disorders Neurological Factors in Odd/Eccentric Personality Disorders Psychological Factors in Odd/Eccentric Personality Disorders Social Factors in Odd/Eccentric Personality Disorders Feedback Loops in Action: Understanding Schizotypal Personality Disorder Understanding Fearful/Anxious Personality Disorders Treating Fearful/Anxious Personality Disorders Follow-up on Rachel Reiland Treating Odd/Eccentric Personality Disorders Dramatic/Erratic Personality Disorders Antisocial Personality Disorder the Role of Conduct Disorder Psychopathy: Is It Different Than Antisocial Personality Disorder Understanding Learning Disorders Neurological Factors Psychological Factors Social Factors Treating Learning Disorders Treating Dyslexia Treating Other Learning Disorders Disorders of Disruptive Behavior and Attention What Is Conduct Disorder Normal Versus Abnormal Aging and Cognitive Functioning Cognitive Functioning in Normal Aging Memory Processing Speed is arthritis in dogs genetic order cheap naprosyn line, Attention arthritis red feet purchase naprosyn with a visa, and Working Memory 680 682 683 683 684 685 685 686 686 686 686 687 688 688 What Is Oppositional Defiant Disorder Dangerousness: Legal Consequences Evaluating Dangerousness Actual Dangerousness Confidentiality and the Dangerous Patient: Duty to Warn and Duty to Protect Maintaining Safety: Confining the Dangerously Mentally Ill Patient Criminal Commitment Civil Commitment Sexual Predator Laws Treating Dementia Targeting Neurological Factors Targeting Psychological Factors Targeting Social Factors Diagnosing Mrs rheumatoid arthritis in your neck naprosyn 250mg line. Research on the entire range of psychological disorders has blossomed during the last decade arthritis in base of neck generic naprosyn 500mg without a prescription, yielding new insights about psychological disorders and their treatments. Research increasingly reveals that psychopathology arises from a confluence of three types of factors: neurological (brain and body, including genes), psychological (thoughts, feelings, and behaviors), and social (relationships and communities). Moreover, these three sorts of factors do not exist in isolation, but rather mutually influence each other. We are a clinical psychologist (Rosenberg) and a cognitive neuroscientist (Kosslyn) who have been writing collaboratively for many years. Our observations about the state of the field of psychopathology-and the problems with how it is sometimes portrayed-led us to envision an abnormal psychology textbook that is guided by a central idea, which we call the neuropsychosocial approach. This approach allows us to conceptualize the ways in which neurological, psychological, and social factors interact to give rise to mental disorders. These interactions take the form of feedback loops in which every type of factor affects every other type. Take depression, for instance, which we discuss in Chapter 6: Someone who attributes the cause of a negative event to himself or herself (such attributions are a psychological factor) is more likely to become depressed. But this tendency to attribute the cause of negative events to oneself is influenced by social experiences, such as being criticized or abused. In turn, such social factors can alter brain functioning (particularly if one has certain genes), and abnormalities in brain functioning affect social interactions, and so on-round and round. The neuropsychosocial approach grew out of the venerable biopsychosocial approach; instead of focusing broadly on biology, however, we take advantage of the bountiful harvest of findings about the brain that have filled the scientific journals over the past two decades. Specifically, the name change signals a focus on the brain itself; we derive much insight from the findings of neuroimaging studies, which reveal how brain systems function normally and how they have gone awry with mental disorders, and we also learn an enormous amount from findings regarding neurotransmitters and genetics. Although mental disorders cannot be fully understood without reference to the brain, neurological factors alone cannot explain these disorders; rather, mental disorders develop through the complex interaction of neurological factors with psychological and social factors. We argue strongly that psychopathology cannot be reduced to "brain disease," akin to a problem someone might have with his or her liver or lungs. Instead, we show that the effects of neurological factors can only be understood in the context of the other two types of factors addressed within the neuropsychosocial approach. Thus, we not only present cutting-edge neuroscience research results but also put them in their proper context. In the classic view, the diathesis was almost always treated as a biological state, and the stress was viewed as a result of environmental events. In contrast, after describing the conventional diathesis-stress model in Chapter 1, we explain how the neuropsychosocial approach provides a new way to think about the relationship between diathesis and stress. Specifically, we show how one can view any of the x x i x x i i Preface three sorts of factors as a potential source of either a diathesis (a precondition that makes a person vulnerable) or a stress (a triggering event). For example, living in a dangerous neighborhood, which is a social factor, creates a diathesis for which psychological events can serve as the stress, triggering an episode of depression. Alternatively, being born with a very sensitive amygdala may act as a diathesis for which social events-such as observing someone else being mugged-can serve as a stressor that triggers an anxiety disorder. Thus, the neuropsychosocial approach is not simply a change in terminology ("bio" to "neuro"), but rather a change in basic orientation: We do not view any one sort of factor as "privileged" over the others, but regard the interactions among the factors-the feedback loops-as paramount. In our view, this approach incorporates what was best about the biopsychosocial approach and the diathesis-stress model.